Exhibiting at HFTC Woodlands, Texas in February 2019 Exhibiting at 53rd ARMA Symposium, New York in June 2019 Exhibiting at ATCE, Calgary in September/October 2019

Joint Industry Project

PEA74: Proppant Flowback Study

 

The aim of this project is to develop guidelines for avoiding proppant flowback. Testing takes place on a test cell that has been developed in-house at FracTech and which recreates field conditions as accurately as possible within realistic constraints.

Fractech Proppant Flowback test cell

5¼" square cell, parallel sides avoid necking that occurs in conductivity cells, i.e. geometric constraints that affect apparent proppant performance
Pack thicknesses between 2 – 25mm
Closure Stresses between 0.2 – 10kpsi
Flow rates up to 1600 l/min (gas), i.e. equivalent to 200Mmscufts/D in a 100' high frac.
Brine, kerosene, gas or multiphase flow.
FracTech's Proppant Flowback Test-Cell  
   

Applications by Well Type:
(clicking on these links will jump to the relevant section )
layout bullet All layout bullet Cyclic
layout bullet High Temperature layout bullet Water Cut
layout bullet Low Temperature layout bullet High-rate Gas

 


 

All Wells

(clicking on these links will jump to the relevant sub-section )
layout bullet Heat Transfer layout bullet Soft Formations
layout bullet Contingency Resin Detachment
layout bullet Erosion

Heat Transfer

A tool is being developed for:

layout bullet Correctly matching the field heat up in the laboratory and hence to properly identify and evaluate issues for high temperature applications (for example, partial curing of the resin before closure is achieved).
layout bullet Aiding fluid stability design for fracturing treatments (for example breaker loading) and provide recommendations for minimum shut-in times to achieve sufficient resin bond strength to enable the well to be brought back on to production post fracture.
Soft Formations
A database of results is to be established showing:

layout bullet Conductivity impairment
layout bullet Sand control
layout bullet Embedment using fibres, rcp and non-rcp systems in unconsolidated sands.

Industry Guidelines and Information Management

A set of industry guidelines and methods are being drafted to provide more effective utilisation of the data generated within the project and the experience and lessons learned in the field.

The guidelines cover the following applications:

layout bullet Low Shut-in Closure Stress layout bullet Fracturing Fluid pH
layout bullet High Shut-in Closure Stress layout bullet Breaker Loadings
layout bullet High Effective Stress During Production layout bullet Shut-in Time
layout bullet Low Reservoir Temperature layout bullet Production Rates
layout bullet High Reservoir Temperature layout bullet Production Fluids
layout bullet Fracture Width layout bullet Stress Cycling During Production
layout bullet Treatment Injection Rate    
Resin Detachment

FracTech have identified this mechanism as a means of pack failure and have isolated those product types which are affected. The current phase of the project will investigate the causes and consequences of this phenomenon.

An experimental product, developed to overcome this failure mechanism has been tested.

Contingency

layout bullet Fluid compatibility issues identified by a participating operator will be investigated.
layout bullet Identification of factors associated with stable molehole production utilising fibres plus resin coated proppants to be established.
Erosion

The identification of factors associated with erosion due to differences in proppant shape / material / density are being studied.

Curing Stress Impact on Conductivity

Higher closure stress during curing of rcp promotes tighter packing and lower permeability.

Much rcp conductivity is referenced to 1000psi curing stress although higher initial shut-in conditions exist in the field. For example, a pack cured at 5000psi will have 40% less conductivity at 8000psi than a pack cured at 1000psi.

FracTech have conducted tests in order to determine the effects on the permeability of proppant packs at elevated curing stresses. Trend analysis for specified products will be issued as part of the current phase of work.

Breaker Adsorption by Resin Coated Proppant Slurries

Breaker adsorption tests have been conducted on a range of different resin-coated products at both 60 and 90 degrees Celsius.


 

High Temperature Wells

Heat Transfer

Under development is a tool for:

layout bullet Correctly matching the field heat up in the laboratory and hence to properly identify and evaluate issues for high temperature applications (for example, partial curing of the resin before closure is achieved).
layout bullet Aiding fluid stability design for fracturing treatments (for example breaker loading) and provide recommendations for minimum shut-in times to achieve sufficient resin bond strength to enable the well to be brought back on to production post fracture.
Resin Detachment

FracTech have identified this mechanism as a means of pack failure and which products are affected. The current phase of the project will investigate the causes and consequences of this phenomenon.

An experimental product, developed to overcome this failure mechanism, has been tested.

Fibres

Tests have been performed to determine the effectiveness of fibres used in conjunction with rcp to overcome the effects of resin detachment. These were conducted at RWE-DEA conditions (i.e. high temperature, high pressure & stress cycling).

Also investigated was the use of fibres with uncoated proppant to produce stable, high conductivity moleholes.

Industry Guidelines and Information Management

A set of industry guidelines and methods are being drafted to provide more effective utilisation of the data generated within the project and the experience and lessons learned in the field.

High temperature applications are covered in the current version of FracTech's industry guidelines.


 

Low Temperature Wells

Heat Transfer

Under development is a tool for:

layout bullet Correctly matching the field heat up in the laboratory and hence to properly identify and evaluate issues for low temperature applications.
layout bullet Aid fluid stability design for fracturing treatments (for example breaker loading) and provide recommendations for minimum shut-in times to achieve sufficient resin bond strength to enable the well to be brought back on to production post fracture.
Fibres

The use of fibres with uncoated proppant to produce stable, high conductivity moleholes has been investigated. Such systems would be applicable to low temperature reservoirs where curing of resin coated proppants may prove problematic.

Field data performance may be collated and critically assessed.

New Technology

A continuation of the deformable bead tests, specifically, higher loadings for wider packs, percentage requirements in 20/40, and comparison of their performance relative to the inclusion of a similar sized non-deforming particle (as a baseline).

The determination of minimum shut-in time and drillability issues of Low Temperature products will be assessed in the current phase.

Industry Guidelines and Information Management

A set of industry guidelines and methods are being drafted to provide more effective utilisation of the data generated within the project and the experience and lessons learned in the field.

Low temperature applications are covered in the current version of FracTech's industry guidelines.


 

Cyclic Wells

Proppant Flowback Evaluation Testing

Numerous products have been flowback tested with stress cycling, under various well conditions. Standard practice is to test to 30 cycles or pack failure.

Extended Time

The issue of extended cycling has been highlighted by a number of operators. Thus, during the current phase, systems are being tested through hundreds rather than tens of cycles.

This work will be run on one of the two flowback cells in which a servo-pump will automatically ramp the pack through stress cycles with data logging of the pack compression and expansion.

 


 

Water Cut Wells

COMING SOON


 

High Gas RateWells

COMING SOON

 

 

Costs

The membership fee is available on application (for current phase)

Current Membership

The project is supported by all primary resin manufacturers, BJ Services and Schlumberger. In addition, it enjoys key support from oil companies globally.